According to FAO in 2012, Brazil is the biggest producer of mate in the world with 513,256 MT (58%), followed by Argentina with 290,000 MT (32%) and Paraguay with 85,490 MT (10%).
Despite that fact, mate or chimarrão in Portugese, is not really a national drink in Brazil — only three southern states Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná consume this beverage in large quantities. Brazil also is the main producer of Uruguayan yerba mate, because the small area of latter is dedicated to cattle and farming.
Brazilian yerba mate, or erva mate as they call it, is very distinctive in almost every aspect. First of all Brazilians prefer not to age their it at all — usually erva mate is quickly dried and packaged to preserve the fresh grassy taste and bright green color. The other distinctive feature is the extremely fine cut of erva mate — combined with neon green color it really resembles the matcha green tea. Different cut and aging means different approach to drinking chimarrão — it is done with cuia and bomba. Bomba is a regular bombilla straw, but with much finer filtering system to prevent clogging and noticeably longer. Why longer? To fit in cuia — a calabash gourd with wide opening, usually much larger in size and volume than typical Argentine gourds. The thing is that aging of yerba mate usually results in more rich, long, and multidimensional flavor profile, so fresh mate that has not been aged usually is more mellow and simple, requiring a larger quantities of product to be used in a single ceremony to get a full-flavored beverage.